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Glossary

macOS

Macintosh Operating System. Formerly known as Mac OS X.

Mail Gateway service

Barracuda NextGen Firewall F-Series service that lets you set up a secure mail gateway. Provides antivirus integration, POP3 scanning, content stripping, grey listing, and blocklists, and generates log files.

mail server

A server that receives, stores, sends, and processes emails.

malicious site

An Internet site that attempts to install malware onto your device, usually to steal your personal information or to disrupt the operation of your system.

MAPI
  • Also known as: Microsoft Application Programming Interface

A programming library for Windows developers that provides messaging services to their applications.

masquerading

Modifying the source IP address and port of a packet (Source NAT) to be the primary IP address assigned to an outgoing interface with a dynamic address (DHCP).

Mb

A megabit.

MBPS

A unit of measure used to describe the rate of data transmission equal to one millions bits per second.

mesh network

A network topology in which each node relays data for the network. All mesh nodes cooperate in the distribution of data in the network.

MHz
  • Also known as: megahertz

A unit of frequency equal to 10^6 hertz, which is defined as one cycle per second. 

MIB
  • Also known as: Management Information Base

A database used for managing the entities in a communication network. Often associated with SNMP.

Microsoft Azure

Microsoft's cloud computing platform. Barracuda Networks was the first Microsoft Azure Certified Security Solution Provider, with a product line that includes the Barracuda Web Application Firewall, NextGen Firewall F-Series, Message Archiver, and Email Security Gateway.

Microsoft Exchange
  • Also known as: MS Exchange

Microsoft Exchange Server is a calendaring and mail server that runs exclusively on the Microsoft Windows Server product line. A hosted version of Exchange Server is available as part of Office 365

Microsoft Office 365
  • Also known as: O365

Microsoft's software plus services model that offers Microsoft Office on a subscription-based pricing model, with cloud storage abilities.

Microsoft SharePoint

A web application platform in the Microsoft Office server suite, mainly used for document management and storage.

 

MIME type

Two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted over the Internet.

MOS
  • Also known as: Mean Opinion Score

Measure representing the overall quality of a system or stimulus, calculated by taking the arithmetic mean of individual values of quality. Often used for, but not limited to, video, audio and audiovisual quality.

MPLS
  • Also known as: Multiprotocol Label Switching

A packet-forwarding method for high performance networks. Directs data between network nodes based on short path labels, instead of long addresses.

MS-CHAP
  • Also known as: Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

Protocol used to authenticate VPN clients over L2TP/PPTP or to authenticate HTTP Proxy users.

MSA
  • Also known as: mail submission agent, message submission agent

Receives email messages from a mail user agent (MUA) and cooperates with a mail transfer agent (MTA) to deliver the mail.

MTA
  • Also known as: Mail Transfer Agent

Software that transports email messages from one computer to another by using a client-server architecture.

MTU
  • Also known as: Maximum Transmission Unit

A specification in a data link protocol that defines the maximum number of bytes that can be carried in any one packet on that link.

multi-factor authentication
  • Also known as: multifactor authentication, MFA

Security feature that requires at least two forms of authentication to access a destination or service. 

multicast

Single packets copied by the network and sent to a specific subset of network addresses. These addresses are specified in the destination address field.

multilayer switch

Switch that filters and forwards packets based on MAC addresses and network addresses. A subset of LAN switch.

multiplexing

Scheme that allows multiple logical signals to be transmitted simultaneously across a single physical channel.

multitenancy
  • Also known as: multitenant

The existence of multiple clients sharing resources (services or applications) on distinct physical hardware. Due to the on-demand nature of cloud, most services are multitenant.

MX records
  • Also known as: mail exchange record

Resource record in DNS that specifies a mail server responsible for accepting email messages for a recipient’s domain. Includes a preference value to prioritize mail delivery when there are multiple mail servers.

Nagle algorithm

Two separate congestion control algorithms that can be used in TCP-based networks. One algorithm reduces the sending window. the other limits small datagrams.

name server

Server connected to a network that resolves network names into network addresses.

Named Networks

NAT
  • Also known as: network address translation

The process of modifying IP address information in IP packet headers while in transit across a traffic routing device. The simplest type of NAT provides a one to one translation of IP addresses.

NAT gateway
  • Also known as: NAT GW

A NAT device, managed by AWS, that performs network address translation in a private subnet, to secure inbound Internet traffic. A NAT gateway uses both NAT and port address translation.

NAT instance

A NAT device, configured by a user, that performs network address translation in a VPC public subnet to secure inbound Internet traffic.

NAT Traversal
  • Also known as: network address translation

A computer networking methodology with the goal to establish and maintain Internet protocol connections across gateways that implement network address translation (NAT). NAT breaks the principle of end-to-end connectivity originally envisioned in the design of the Internet.

native application
  • Also known as: native app

Locally installed application that has been developed for use on a particular platform or device.

NDR
  • Also known as: non-delivery report, bounce, non-delivery notification (NDN)

An automated email message from the mail system informing the sender that there was a delivery problem with an email message that they sent.

neighboring routers

In OSPF, two routers that have interfaces to a common network. On multiaccess networks, neighbors are dynamically discovered by the OSPF Hello protocol.

NetBIOS
  • Also known as: Network Basic Input/Output System

API used by applications on an IBM LAN to request services from lower-level network processes. These services might include session establishment and termination, and information transfer.

Network Access Client
  • Also known as: NAC Client

Barracuda product that integrates with the Access Control Service and lets you configure access policies and rules depending identity and client health state. The NAC Client consists of Barracuda Personal Firewall, Barracuda Access Monitor, and Barracuda VPN Client.

network addressable storage
  • Also known as: network addressable storage

A file-level computer data storage server connected to a computer network providing data access to a mixed group of clients.

network layer

Layer 3 of the OSI reference model. This layer provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems. The network layer is the layer at which routing occurs.

network object

A firewall object on the Barracuda NextGen Firewall F-Series that references networks, IP addresses, hostnames, or interfaces. Network objects can be applied to access rules. 

Network Time Protocol
  • Also known as: NTP

Networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.

Next-Generation Firewall
  • Also known as: NextGen Firewall, NG Firewall

Integrated network platform that combines a traditional firewall with other network device filtering functionalities, such as an application firewall using in-line deep packet inspection (DPI), an intrusion prevention system (IPS). Other techniques might also be employed.

NextGen Remote

Software that provides system administrators remote access to F-Series Firewalls and Control Centers through their iOS device. 

NextGen SSL VPN client
  • Also known as: NG SSL VPN client

VPN client that can be installed on the Barracuda NextGen Firewall F-Series and then accessed through the NextGen SSL VPN web portal. (Barracuda SSL VPN is a different product.)

NextGen SSL VPN mobile portal

Mobile portal in NextGen Firewall that provides access web resources for mobile devices. (Barracuda SSL VPN is a separate product.)

NFS
  • Also known as: Network File System

Unix and Linux operating system network file sharing system. 

NG Control Center

A central administration appliance designed to manage a large number of Barracuda NG Firewalls.

non-stub area

Resource-intensive OSPF area that carries a default route, static routes, intra-area routes, interarea routes, and external routes. The only OSPF areas that can have virtual links configured across them and that can contain an ASBR.

NoSQL

Nonrelational database systems that are highly available, scalable, and optimized for high performance. Instead of the relational model, NoSQL databases (like Amazon DynamoDB) use alternate models for data management, such as key–value pairs or document storage.

nslookup

A network administration command-line tool available for many computer operating systems for querying the Domain Name System (DNS) to obtain domain name or IP address mapping or for any other specific DNS record.

NTLM
  • Also known as: NT LAN Manager

A suite of Microsoft security protocols that provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users.

null ciphers

Form of encryption where the plaintext is mixed with a large amount of non-cipher material.

offline authentication

Authentication method with an internal IP address as destination. Offline Authentication Works with all protocols (for example, POP3).

offsite

Refers to a location other than the subject site. Example: Barracuda Cloud Storage subscription plans provide diverse offsite storage that scales to meet your changing data requirements.

offsite replication
  • Also known as: off-site replication

Replicates backup data to another geographical location that is running a secondary Barracuda Backup appliance. This is to ensure against data loss in case of catastrophe.

offsite vaulting
  • Also known as: off-site vaulting

The ability to store longer-term backups exclusively in the cloud to free space for daily needs.

On-Demand Instance

An Amazon EC2 pricing option that charges you for compute capacity by the hour with no long-term commitment.

ONC-RPC
  • Also known as: Open Network Computing Remote Procedure Call

Remote procedure call system based on calling conventions used in Unix and the C programming language.

one-arm proxy

A deployment option where only one network interface of a device is used to transfer incoming and outgoing traffic.

one-time password
  • Also known as: OTP, one time password

An automatically generated numeric or alphanumeric string of characters that authenticates the user for a single transaction or session.

onsite

At the place where a business or activity happens. Compare to offsite.

onsite replication
  • Also known as: on-site replication

Replicates backup data to a secondary Barracuda Backup appliance at the same location.

OpenStack

A free and open-source cloud computing software platform used to control pools of processing, storage, and networking resources in a datacenter.

OSB transformation

Orthogonal sparse bigram transformation. In machine learning, a transformation that aids in text string analysis and that is an alternative to the n-gram transformation. OSB transformations are generated by sliding the window of size n words over the text, and outputting every pair of words that includes the first word in the window.

OSPF
  • Also known as: Open Shortest Path First

A dynamic routing protocol. OSPF is a link state protocol that uses Dijkstra algorithm to calculate the shortest path tree.

OST file
  • Also known as: Offline Outlook Data file

Used when you have a Microsoft Exchange account and want to work offline or use the default Cached Exchange Mode. See also PST file.

Outbound Data Theft Protection

Data theft protection prevents unauthorized disclosure of confidential information such as social security number, passwords, credit card information, etc.

outbound filtering

Scanning email messages from local users before any potentially harmful messages can be delivered to others on the Internet.

OWA
  • Also known as: Outlook Web Access, Outlook Web App

Microsoft provides OWA as part of Exchange Server to allow users to connect to their email accounts via a web browser, without requiring the installation of Microsoft Outlook.

OWASP
  • Also known as: Open Web Application Security Project

A worldwide, not-for-profit charitable organization focused on improving the security of software. Creator of the OWASP Top 10, a powerful awareness document for web application security, representing a broad consensus about the most critical web application security flaws. 

 https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Category:OWASP_Top_Ten_Project