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Barracuda Web Application Firewall

How to Configure Syslog and other Logs

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The Barracuda Web Application Firewall generates five types of logs which can be exported to the configured external log servers. These logs also reside on the Barracuda Web Application Firewall log database, viewable on the web interface on various tabs. In addition, logs can be exported in CSV format to external files. This article describes each element of log messages, so that an administrator can analyze events and understand how the Barracuda Web Application Firewall handled each logged event. The log format details can help you use external parsers or other agents, available starting with version 7.0.x of the firmware, to process the log messages sent from the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.

The following logs are explained briefly below. These logs can be segregated and distributed using the LOCAL 0 through LOCAL 7 facilities, making management of these logs on the external log servers easier.

  • System Logs : Logs events generated by the system showing the general activity of the system.
  • Web Firewall Logs : Logs events which indicate the web firewall activity such as allowing, blocking or modifying the incoming requests and responses as defined in the Barracuda Web Application Firewall rules and policies.
  • Access Logs : Logs events pertaining to traffic activity and various elements of the incoming HTTP request and the responses from the back-end servers.
  • Audit Logs : Logs events pertaining to the auditing events generated by the system including configuration and UI activity by users like admin.
  • Network Firewall Logs: Logs events generated whenever network traffic passing through the interfaces (WAN, LAN and MGMT) matches the configured Network ACL rule.

If you have any questions after reading this document, please contact Barracuda Networks Technical Support.

Adding Export Log Servers

If the instance is deployed in the Azure Security Center, the Barracuda Web Application Firewall adds an Azure Event Hub server with the pre-set custom log format for “Web Firewall Logs Format”. If a Microsoft Azure OMS server is added, some of the objects of the Web Firewall logs that are sent to the OMS server will have incorrect values. Therefore, it is recommended not to use the Microsoft Azure OMS server as an “Export Log” server when the instance is deployed in the Azure Security Center.

To add export log servers, navigate to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page, Export Logs section. You can configure a maximum of five (5) export log servers (i.e. Syslog NG, AMQP, AMQPS, and/or Azure Event Hub). All the logs, that is, system logs, web firewall logs, access logs, audit logs and network firewall logs are sent to the configured export log servers. See Steps To Add an Export Log Server.

If you are running syslog on a UNIX machine, be sure to start the syslog daemon process with the “-r” option so it can receive messages from external sources. Windows users require additional software to utilize syslog since the Windows OS does not include the syslog capability. Kiwi Syslog is a popular solution, but there are many others to choose from, both free and commercial.

Log messages are sent over UDP/TCP/SSL ports. If there are any firewalls between the Barracuda Web Application Firewall and the configured export log servers, ensure that the respective port is open on the firewalls.

The Barracuda Web Application Firewall enables you to add the following log servers to export the logs:

  • Syslog Server
  • Cloud Syslog Service
  • AMQP/AMQPS Server
  • Event Hub
  • Reporting Server
  • Microsoft Azure OMS
Steps To Add a Syslog Server
  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Export Logs section, click Add Export Log Server. The Add Export Log Server window appears, specify values for the following::
    1. Name Enter a name for the syslog NG server.
    2. Log Server Type - Select Syslog NG.
    3. IP Address or Hostname – Enter the IP address or the hostname of the syslog NG server.
    4. Port – Enter the port associated with the IP address of the syslog NG server.
    5. Connection Type – Select the connection type to transmit the logs from the Barracuda Web Application Firewall to the Syslog server. UDP is the default port for Syslog communication. UDP, TCP or SSL can be used in case of NG Syslog server.
    6. Validate Server Certificate – Set to Yes to validate the syslog server certificate using the internal bundle of Certificate Authority's (CAs) certificates packaged with the system. If set to No, any certificate from the syslog server is accepted.
    7. Client Certificate – When set to Yes, the Barracuda Web Application Firewall presents the certificate while connecting to the syslog server.
    8. Certificate – Select a certificate for the Barracuda Web Application Firewall to present when connecting to the syslog server. Certificates can be uploaded on the BASIC > Certificates page. For more information on how to upload a certificate, see How to Add an SSL Certificate.
    9. Log Timestamp and Hostname - Set to Yes if you want to log the date and time of the event, and the hostname configured on the BASIC > IP Configuration > Domain Configuration section.
  3. Click Add.
Steps To Add a Cloud Syslog Service

Sumologic

  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Add Export Log Server window, specify values for the following:
    1. Name - Enter a name for the sumologic service.
    2. Log Server Type - Select Cloud Syslog Service.
    3. IP Address or Hostname - Enter the IP address or the hostname of the sumologic service. For example: syslog.collection.your_deployment.sumologic.com
    4. Port - Enter the port associated with the IP address of the sumologic service. The default Port is 6514.
    5. Token - Enter the token for sumologic service.
      For example: 9HFxoa6+lXBmvSM9koPjGzvTaxXDQvJ4POE/WCURPAo+w4H7PmZm8H3mSEKxPl0Q@41123, where the number "41123" is the sumo PEN and is included as part of the customer token.
    6. Log Timestamp and Hostname - Set to Yes if you want to log the date and time of the event, and the hostname configured on the BASIC > IP Configuration > Domain Configuration section.
    7. Comment - (Optional) Enter comment about the new setting.
  3. Click Add.

Loggly

  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Add Export Log Server window, specify values for the following:
    1. Name - Enter a name for the loggly service.
    2. Log Server Type - Select Cloud Syslog Service.
    3. IP Address or Hostname - Enter the IP address or the hostname of the loggly service. For example: logs-01.loggly.com
    4. Port - Enter the port associated with the IP address of the loggly service.
    5. Token - Enter the token for loggly service.
      For example: 0a7c8023-92a7-4c9c-90f3-2d18453fdafa@41058, where 41058 is the loggly ID that should be mentioned after the token.
    6. Log Timestamp and Hostname - Set to Yes if you want to log the date and time of the event, and the hostname configured on the BASIC > IP Configuration > Domain Configuration section.
    7. Comment - (Optional) Enter comment about the new setting.
  3. Click Add.
Steps To Add an AMQP/AMQPS Server
  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Export Logs section, click Add Export Log Server. The Add Export Log Server window appears, specify values for the following::
    1. Name Enter a name for the AMQP server.
    2. Log Server Type - Select AMQP/AMQPS.
    3. IP Address or Hostname – Enter the IP address or the hostname of the AMQP/AMQPS server.
    4. Port – Enter the port associated with the IP address of the AMQP/AMQPS server.
    5. Username - Enter the user name to be used to authenticate to the AMQP/AMQPS server.
    6. Password - Enter the password to be used for the above user account.
    7. Event Queue Name - Enter the queue name configured on the AMQP/AMQPS server to which logs needs to be exported.
    8. Log Timestamp and Hostname - Set to Yes if you want to log the date and time of the event, and the hostname configured on the BASIC > IP Configuration > Domain Configuration section.
  3. Click Add.
Steps To Add an Azure Event Hub
  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Export Logs section, click Add Export Log Server. The Add Export Log Server window appears, specify values for the following::
    1. Name Enter a name for the Azure Event Hub.
    2. Log Server Type - Select Azure Event Hub.
    3. Policy Name - Enter the Microsoft Azure event hub policy name. Example: sendRule
    4. Policy SAS Key - Enter the Microsoft Azure event hub SAS key value. Example: d874XRvDafW2WdCJxb56jLfROE6d3ypdv307OvZwsvY=
    5. Service Bus Name - Enter the Microsoft Azure event hub service bus name.
    6. Event Hub Name - Enter the Microsoft Azure event hub name.
    7. Log Timestamp and Hostname - Set to Yes if you want to log the date and time of the event, and the hostname configured on the BASIC > IP Configuration > Domain Configuration section.
  3. Click Add.

Steps To Add a Microsoft Azure OMS Server

  1. In the Add Export Log Server window, specify values for the following:
    1. Name - Enter a name for the Microsoft Azure OMS server.
    2. Log Server Type - Select Microsoft Azure OMS to export the logs to Microsoft Azure OMS.

      • When Log Server Type is set to Microsoft Azure OMS, ensure that the Microsoft Azure OMS format is set for all log types in the ADVANCED > Export Logs page, Logs Format section.
      • When the Log Server Type is Microsoft Azure OMS, the Syslog Settings for Web Firewall Logs Facility should be set to local0 and other logs facility (Access Logs Facility, Audit Logs Facility, System Logs Facility and Network Logs Facility) should be anything other than local0 (i.e., local1 to local7)
    3. OMS Workspace ID - Enter the Workspace ID of the Microsoft Azure OMS portal. (Workspace ID is available in the Microsoft Operations Management Suite portal, Settings > Connected Sources > Linux Servers page).
    4. OMS Primary Key - Enter the Primary Key of the Microsoft Azure OMS portal. (Primary Key is available in the Microsoft Operations Management Suite portal, Settings > Connected Sources > Linux Servers page).
    5. Log Event Type - Select the log events that needs to be sent as custom logs to the Microsoft Azure OMS portal.
      • All: When selected, the Barracuda Web Application Firewall sends all logs (Access Logs, Audit Logs, Web Firewall Logs, Network Firewall Logs and System Logs) as custom logs to the Microsoft Azure OMS portal. In this case, Web Firewall Logs are also sent as CommonSecurityEvents logs.
      • Web Firewall Logs: When selected, the Barracuda Web Application Firewall sends only Web Firewall Logs as CommonSecurityEvents logs to the Microsoft Azure OMS portal.
  2. Click Add.

If you have two or more Barracuda Web Application Firewalls sending logs to a single OMS workspace, then the hostname of each Barracuda Web Application Firewall must be unique for the OMS graphs to work correctly. You can configure the hostname under Domain Configuration in the BASIC > IP Configuration page.

Steps To add Barracuda Reporting Service

  1. In the Add Export Log Server window, specify values for the following:
    1. Name - Enter a name for the reporting service.
    2. Log Server Type - Select Barracuda Reporting Service to export the logs to the Reporting Server.
    3. IP Address or Hostname - Enter the IP address or the hostname of the reporting service.
    4. Password - Enter the password to be used for the above user account.
  2. Click Add.

Syslog Facility

Syslog receives different types of log messages. In order to differentiate and store them in distinct log files, log messages contain a logging priority and a logging facility in addition to the actual message and IP address.

All log messages are marked with one of the following facilities:

  • local0
  • local1
  • |ocal2
  • local3
  • local4
  • local5
  • local6
  • local7

For each configured syslog server, you can associate a specific facility (default = local0) with each log type, so your syslog server can segregate the log of each type into a different file. 

To configure facilities for different log types
  1. Navigate to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Export Logs section, click Export Log Settings. The Export Log Settings window appears.
  3. In the Syslog Settings section, select the appropriate facility (Local0 to Local7) from the drop-down list for each log type and click Save.

You can set the same facility for all log types. For example, you can set Local0 for System Logs, Web Firewall Logs, Access Logs, Audit Logs and Network Firewall Logs.

In the Export Log Settings window, you can:

  • Enable or disable the logs that needs to be exported to the configured export log server(s) in the Export Log Settings section.
  • Set the severity level to export web firewall logs and system logs to the configured export log server(s) in the Export Log Filters section. The Barracuda Web Application Firewall exports the logs based on the selected severity level. For example, if Web Firewall Log Severity is set to 2-Critical, then logs with 0-2 are sent to the external log server i.e. 0-Emergency, 1-Alert and 2-Critical.
To configure log levels for different modules
  1. Navigate to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Module Log Levels section, specify values for the following fields:
    1. Name – Enter a name for the new setting.
    2. Module – Select a module name from the drop-down list.
    3. Log Level – Select a log level for the module from the drop-down list. By default, the log level is set to 0-Emergency. Note that the lower the level, the higher the priority and the more attention the log entry demands. For example, log levels 0-Emergency and 1-Alert are the highest priority situations, demanding more immediate response than 5-Notice or 6-Information.
    4. Comment – (Optional). Enter comment about the new setting.
  3. Click Add to add the above settings.

Module Log Level is an advanced feature, and available only when Advanced Settings is set to Yes on the ADVANCED > System Configuration page.

Log Formats

You can customize the Web Firewall Logs, Access Logs, and Audit Logs formats sent to the syslog sever. You can choose from the predefined log formats (Common Log Format, NCSA Extended Format, W3C Extended Format, or Default), or you can create a Custom Format. Given below are the steps to specify the Custom Format.

Depending upon the configuration, an IP address of a Service, Client IP or Server IP can either be IPv4 or IPv6.

Custom Log Format

To customize the log format for any Log Type (except System Logs)

  1. Navigate to ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Logs Format section, select Custom Format for any of the log types. The Custom Format  can be defined in two ways:
    1. Specify "%" followed by the alphabet. The alphabets and its meaning are given in the Table of Log Formats for different log types. For example, if you configure "%h %u %t %r %ua %ci" as the custom format, the output will be "Jan 13 16:19:22 wsf 192.168.132.211 /cgi-bin/process.cgi 2010-01-13 05:49:22.350 -0500 "-" "Wget/1.10.2 (Red Hat modified)" 192.168.128.7". OR,
    2. Specify "name=value" format. For example, if you configure "host=%h url=%u time=%t ref=%r uagent=%ua src=%ci" as the custom format, the output will be "Jan 13 16:19:22 wsf host=192.168.132.211 url=/cgi-bin/process.cgi time=2010-01-13 05:49:22.350 -0500 ref="-" uagent="Wget/1.10.2 (Red Hat modified)" src=192.168.128.7". This format is used by some SEIM vendors such as ArchSight.
  3. Click Save to save the settings.
Log Format Separators

When defining log formats you can use space as a separator between each log format for Web Firewall Logs Format, Access Logs Format and Audit Logs Format.

For Access Logs Format, you could also use pipe (|) or semicolon (;) separators. Log formats can be separated by a single separator or a combination of space, pipe and semicolon separators.

Log formats can use only one separator in each place i.e. space (" "), pipe (|) or semicolon. For example: %h %id|%u;%t %r|%s

For information on how to manage these logs please see the documentation available for your syslog server.

Steps To Configure Logs Format
  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Export Logs page.
  2. In the Logs Format section, specify values for the following fields:
    1. Syslog Header – Specify a header format, which will be displayed when %header is used in the logs format. For example, consider the header format is "Barracuda", and the defined custom format is "%header %h %u %t %r %ua %ci". The output will be "Barracuda Jan 13 16:19:22 wsf 192.168.132.211 /cgi-bin/process.cgi 2010-01-13 05:49:22.350 -0500 "-" "Wget/1.10.2 (Red Hat modified)" 192.168.128.7". Values:
      1. ArcSight Log Header – Uses this header format in the logs format.
      2. QRadar Log Header – Uses this header format in the logs format.
      3. Custom Header – Define a custom header format to be used in the logs format.
    2. Web Firewall Logs Format – Select the format in which the Web firewall logs should be sent to the export log server. Values:
      1. Default – The default Web firewall log format defined by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall
      2. CEF:0 (ArcSight) – The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by ArcSight.
      3. HPE ArcSight CEF:0 - The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by HP ArcSight. This is the updated version of CEF:0 (ArcSight).
      4. LEEF1.0 (QRadar) – The Log Event Enhanced Format (LEEF) log used by QRadar.
      5. Symantec SIM – The default log format used by Symantec SIM.
      6. RSA enVision – The default log format used by RSA envision.
      7. Microsoft Azure OMS - The default log format used by Microsoft Azure OMS.
      8. Splunk – The default log format used by Splunk.
      9. Custom Format Define a custom log format using the values displayed under Web Firewall Logs in the Table of Log Formats
    3. Access Logs Format – Select the format in which the access logs should be sent to the export log server. Values:
      1. Default – The default access log format defined by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
      2. Common Log Format – The default format for logged HTTP information.
      3. NCSA Extended Format – The Common Log Format appended with referer and agent information.
      4. W3C Extended Format – The default log format used by Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).
      5. CEF:0 (ArcSight) – The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by ArcSight.
      6. HPE ArcSight CEF:0 - The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by HP ArcSight. This is the updated version of CEF:0 (ArcSight)
      7. LEEF1.0 (QRadar) – The Log Event Enhanced Format (LEEF) log used by QRadar.
      8. Symantec SIM – The default log format used by Symantec SIM.
      9. RSA enVision – The default log format used by RSA enVision.
      10. Splunk – The default log format used by Splunk.
      11. Microsoft Azure OMS - The default log format used by Microsoft Azure OMS.
      12. Custom Format – Define a custom log format using the values displayed under Access Logs in Table of Log Formats.
    4. Audit Logs Format – Select the format in which the audit logs should be sent to the export log server. Values:
      1. Default The default audit logs format defined by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
      2. CEF:0 (ArcSight) – The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by ArcSight.
      3. HPE ArcSight CEF:0 - The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by HP ArcSight. This is the updated version of CEF:0 (ArcSight)
      4. LEEF1.0 (QRadar) – The Log Event Enhanced Format (LEEF) log used by QRadar.
      5. Symantec SIM – The default log format used by Symantec SIM.
      6. RSA envision – The default log format used by RSA envision.
      7. Splunk – The default log format used by Splunk.
      8. Microsoft Azure OMS - The default log format used by Microsoft Azure OMS.
      9. Custom Format – Define a custom log format using the values displayed under Audit Logs in the Table of Log Formats.
    5. Network Firewall Logs Format - Select the format in which the network firewall logs should be sent to the export log server. Values:
      1. Default - The default network firewall logs format defined by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
      2. HPE ArcSight CEF:0 - The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by HP ArcSight. This is the updated version of CEF:0 (ArcSight)
      3. Custom Format - Define a custom log format using the values displayed under Network Firewall Logs in the Table of Log Formats.
    6. System Logs Format - Select the format in which the system logs should be sent to the export log server. Values:
      1. Default - The default system logs format defined by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
      2. CEF:0 (ArcSight) - The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by ArcSight.
      3. HPE ArcSight CEF:0 - The Common Event Format (CEF) log used by HP ArcSight. This is the updated version of CEF:0 (ArcSight)
      4. LEEF1.0 (QRadar) - The Log Event Enhanced Format (LEEF) log used by QRadar.
      5. Symantec SIM - The default log format used by Symantec SIM.
      6. RSA enVision - The default log format used by RSA envision.
      7. Splunk - The default log format used by Splunk.
      8. Microsoft Azure OMS - The default log format used by Microsoft Azure OMS.
      9. Custom Format - Define a custom log format using the values displayed under System Logs in the Table of Log Formats.
  3. Click Save.

The sections below describe the formats of the logs and elements sent over in each type of the event generated by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall. Please be aware that syslog implementations vary, and may not display the messages in this exact format. However, these sections should be present in the syslog lines.

System Logs

The default log format for the events generated by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall system is as follows:

%t %un %lt %md %ll %ei %ms

For information on default log formats and their meanings, see the table below.

Example:

2014-05-20 00: 54:44.627 -0700  WAF1 SYS ADMIN_M ALER 51001 Account has been locked for user Kevin because the number of consecutive log-in failures exceeded the maximum allowed

Detailed Description

The following table describes each element of a system log with respect to the above example:

Field Name Example Description
Time  2014-05-20 00: 54:44.627 -0700 The date and time at which the event occurred.
Unit Name WAF1 Specifies the name of the unit which is same as the Default Hostname on the BASIC > IP Configuration page.
Log Type SYS

Specifies the type of log: Web Firewall Log, Access Log, Audit Log, Network Firewall Log or System Log.

 

Values: WF, TR, AUDIT, NF, SYS
Module Name ADMIN_M

Denotes the name of the module that generated the logs.

Example: STM, SAPD, LB, PROCMON, etc.
Log Level

ALER

The level of severity.

Values:

  • EMERGENCY – System is unusable (highest priority).
  • ALERT – Response must be taken immediately.
  • CRITICAL – Critical conditions.
  • ERROR – Error conditions.
  • WARNING – Warning conditions.
  • NOTICE – Normal but significant condition.
  • INFORMATION – Informational message (on ACL configuration changes).
  • DEBUG – Debug-level message (lowest priority).
Event ID

51001

The event ID of the module.

Message Account has been locked for user Kevin because the number of consecutive log-in failures exceeded the maximum allowed. Denotes the log message for the event that occurred.

Web Firewall Logs

All the actions/events on the web firewall are logged under Web Firewall Logs. These logs help the administrator to analyze the traffic for suspicious activity and also fine tune the web firewall policies.

Navigate to the BASIC > Web Firewall Logs page to view the generated log messages. This log data is obtained from the log database on the Barracuda Web Application Firewall itself. As noted above, the external syslog server IP for these logs is specified under ADVANCED > Export Logs > Syslog. Over syslog, every log in the Barracuda Web Application Firewall has a level associated with it, which indicates the severity of the logs. An administrator can configure what level of logs should be recorded for each service by editing the Service under the BASIC > Services page.

The default log format for Web Firewall Logs:

%t %un %lt %sl %ad %ci %cp %ai %ap %ri %rt %at %fa %adl %m %u %p %sid %ua %px %pp %au %r

Unit Name, Log Type, and Log ID are not displayed on the BASIC > Web Firewall Logs page.

IPv4 Example:

2014-04-11 10:50:30.411 +0530  wafbox1 WF ALER PRE_1_0_REQUEST 99.99.1.117 34006 99.99.109.2 80 global GLOBAL LOG NONE [POST /index.cgi] POST 99.99.109.2/index.cgi HTTP REQ-0+RES-0 “Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:12.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/12.0”  99.99.1.117 34005 Kevin http://99.99.109.2/index.cgi

IPv6 Example:

2014-04-11 10:52:01.579 +0530  wafbox1 WF ALER PRE_1_0_REQUEST 2001::117 43655 2001::1:109 80 global GLOBAL LOG NONE [POST /index.cgi] POST 2001::1:109/index.cgi HTTP REQ-0+RES-0  " Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:12.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/12.0" 2001::117 43654 Kevin http://2001::109/index.cgi

Detailed Description

The following table describes each element of a web firewall log with respect to the above example:

Field Name Example Description
Time 2014-04-11 10:50:30.411 +0530 The time recorded in the following format: "yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.s" (one or more digits representing a decimal fraction of a second) TZD (time zone designator which is either Z or +hh:mm or -hh:mm)
Unit Name wafbox1 Specifies the name of the unit which is same as the Default Hostname on the BASIC > IP Configuration page.
Log Type WF

Specifies the type of log: Web Firewall Log, Access Log, Audit Log, Network Firewall Log or System Log.

 

Values: WF, TR, AUDIT, NF, SYS
Severity ALER

Defines the seriousness of the attack.

Values:

  • EMERGENCY – System is unusable (highest priority).
  • ALERT – Response must be taken immediately.
  • CRITICAL – Critical conditions.
  • ERROR – Error conditions.
  • WARNING – Warning conditions.
  • NOTICE – Normal but significant condition.
  • INFORMATION – Informational message (on ACL configuration changes).
  • DEBUG – Debug-level message (lowest priority).
Attack Type PRE_1_0_REQUEST The name of the attack triggered by the request. For detailed information about attack names and description, see Attacks Description - Action Policy
Client IP

99.99.1.117
OR

2001::117

The IP address of the client sending the request.

Note that an intermediate proxy or gateway may have overwritten the actual source IP of the client with its own. To retrieve the actual client IP for logging you should configure the Header Name For Actual Client IP under the Edit actions for a service on the BASIC > Services page.

Then the actual client IP can be extracted from the header, (e.g. X-Forwarded-For) logged in this field and used in security policy checks involving the client IP. See also related Proxy IP field below.

Client Port 34006
OR
43655
The port relevant to the client IP address.
Service IP

99.99.109.2
OR

2001::1:109
The IP address of the service that receives the traffic.
Service Port 80 The port relevant to the IP address of the service.
Rule global

The path of the URL ACL that matched with the request. Here "webapp1" is the web application and "deny_ban_dir" is the name of the URL ACL created on the WEBSITES > Allow/Deny page.

Rule Type GLOBAL

This indicates the type of rule that was hit by the request that caused the attack. The following is the list of expected values for Rule Type:

Global – indicates that the request matched one of the global rules configured under Security Policies.

Global URL ACL – indicates that the request matched one of the global URL ACL rules configured under Security Policies.

URL ACL – indicates that the request matched one of the Allow/Deny rules configured specifically for the given Web site.

URL Policy – indicates that the request matched one of the Advanced Security rules configured specifically for the given Web site.

URL Profile – indicates that the request matched one of the rules configured on the URL Profile.

Parameter Profile – indicates that the request matched one of the rules configured on the Parameter Profile.

Header Profile – indicates that the request matched one of the rules configured on the Header Profile.

Action LOG

The appropriate action applied on the traffic.

DENY - denotes that the traffic is denied.
LOG - denotes monitoring of the traffic with the assigned rule.

WARNING - warns about the traffic.
Follow-up Action NONE The follow-up action as specified by the action policy. It could be either None or Locked in case the lockout is chosen.
Attack Details [POST /index.cgi] The details of the attack triggered by the request.
Method POST

The HTTP method used by the request.

Values: GET, POST, HEAD, etc.
Host + URL

99.99.109.2/index.cgi
OR

2001::1:109/index.cgi
The URL specified in the request.
Protocol HTTP The protocol used for the request.
Session ID REQ-0+RES-0 The value of the session tokens found in the request if session tracking is enabled. Session Tracking is configured on the WEBSITES > Advanced Security page.
User Agent Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:12.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/12.0 The value contained in the User-Agent request header. Normally, this information is submitted by the clients which details the browser, operating system, software vendor or software revision, in an identification string.
Proxy IP

99.99.1.117
OR
2001::117

If the client requests are coming through a proxy or gateway, then this field provides the IP address of the proxy.

A client side proxy or gateway changes the source IP of the request to its own and embeds the actual client’s IP in an HTTP header such as X-Forwarded-For or X-Client-IP.

The Barracuda Web Application Firewall, if configured, will ignore the proxy IP and extract the actual client IP from the appropriate header to apply security policies as well as for logging the Client IP field above.

This field preserves the proxy IP address for cases where it is required, e.g. forensics and analytics

Note: The actual client IP header configuration is done using the Header Name For Actual Client IP under the Edit actions for a service on the BASIC > Services page.

Proxy Port 34005
OR
43654
The port of the proxy server whose IP address has been logged in the Proxy IP field above.
Authenticated User Kevin The username of the currently authenticated client requesting the web page. This is available only when the request is for a service that is using the AAA (Access Control) module.
Referrer

http://99.99.109.2/index.cgi
OR
http://2001::109/index.cgi

The value contained in the Referrer HTTP request header. It identifies the web resource from which the client was “referred” to the requested URL.

Access Logs

All web traffic activities are logged under the Access Logs. These logs help the administrator to obtain information about the website traffic and performance.

The BASIC > Access Logs page allows you to view the generated log messages stored on the Barracuda Web Application Firewall in a log database.

The default log format for Access Logs:

%t %un %lt %ai %ap %ci %cp %id %cu %m %p %h %v %s %bs %br %ch %tt %si %sp %st

%sid %rtf %pmf %pf %wmf %u %q %r %c %ua %px %pp %au %cs1 %cs2 %cs3

Unit Name, Log Type, and Log ID are not displayed on the BASIC > Access Logs page.

IPv4 Example:

2014-04-11 12:04:04.735 +0530  wafbox1 TR 99.99.109.2 80 99.99.1.117 34065 "-" "-" GET HTTP 99.99.106.25 HTTP/1.1 200 2829 232 0 1127 10.11.25.117 80 21 REQ-0+RES-0  SERVER DEFAULT PASSIVE VALID /index.html name=srawat http://99.99.109.2/index.cgi namdksih=askdj "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:12.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/12.0" 99.99.1.117 34065 John gzip,deflate 99.99.1.128 keep-alive


IPv6 Example:

2014-04-11 12:11:24.964 +0530  wafbox1 TR 2001::1:109 80 2001::117 43740 "-" "-" GET HTTP 2001::1:109 HTTP/1.1 200 2837 232 0 1008 2001::117 80 10 REQ-0+RES-0   SERVER DEFAULT PASSIVE VALID /index.html name=srawat http://2001::1:109/index.cgi namdksih=askdj "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:12.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/12.0" 2001::117 43740 John gzip,deflate 2001::128 keep-alive

Detailed Description

The table below describes each element of an access log with respect to the above example:

Field Name Example Description
Time 2014-04-11 12:04:04.735 +0530 The time recorded in the following format: yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.s (one or more digits representing a decimal fraction of a second)TZD(time zone designator which is either Z or +hh:mm or -hh:mm)
Unit Name wafbox1 The name of the unit specified as  Default Hostname on the BASIC > IP Configuration page.
Log Type TR

Denotes the type of log: Web Firewall Log, Access Log, Audit Log, Network Firewall Log or System Log.

Values: WF, TR, AUDIT, NF, SYS

Service IP

99.99.109.2
OR

2001::1:109
The IP address of the service that receives the traffic.
Service Port 80 The port relevant to the IP address of the service.
Client IP

99.99.1.117
OR

2001::117

The IP address of the client sending the request.

Note that an intermediate proxy or gateway may have overwritten the actual source IP of the client with it’s own. To retrieve the actual client IP for logging you should configure the Header Name For Actual Client IP under the Edit actions for a service on the BASIC > Services page.

If the above is configured, the actual client IP is extracted from the header, e.g. X-Forwarded-For and used to populate this field and used in security policy checks involving the client IP as well. See related Proxy IP field below as well.
Client Port 59589
OR
43646
The port relevant to the client IP address.
Login - The login ID used by the client when authentication is set to "ON" for the service on the ACCESS CONTROL > Authentication Policies page. This would be the user authenticated by LDAP, RADIUS, RSA SecurID, SAML IDP, or Kerberos authentication service configured on the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
Certificate User - The username as found in the SSL certificate when Client Authentication is enforced by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
Method GET The request method of the traffic.
Protocol (HTTP or HTTPS) HTTP The protocol used for communication with the web server, either HTTP or HTTPS.
Host

99.99.106.25
OR

2001::1:109
The IP address of the host or website accessed by the user.
Version HTTP/1.1 The HTTP version used by the request.
HTTP status 200 The standard response code which helps identify the cause of the problem when a web page or other resource does not load properly.
Bytes Sent 2829 The bytes sent as response by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall to the client.
Bytes Received 232 The bytes received from the client as a part of the request.
Cache Hit 0

Specifies whether the response is served out of the Barracuda Web Application Firewall cache or from the back-end server.

Values:

0 – if the request is fetched from the server and given to the user.

1 – if the request is fetched from the cache and given to the user.
Time Taken (ms) 1127 The total time taken to serve the request from the time the request landed on the Barracuda Web Application Firewall till the last byte given out to the client.
Server IP

10.11.25.117
OR

2001::117
The IP address of the back-end web server.
Server Port 80 The port relevant to the back-end web server.
Server Time (ms) 21 The total time taken by the back-end server to serve the request forwarded to it by the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
Session ID REQ-0+RES-0 The value of the session tokens found in the request if session tracking is enabled. Session Tracking is configured on the WEBSITES > Advanced Security page.
Response Type SERVER

Specifies whether the response came from the back-end sever or from the Barracuda Web Application Firewall. 

Values: INTERNAL, SERVER.

Profile Matched DEFAULT

Specifies whether the request matched a defined URL or Parameter Profile.

Values: DEFAULT, PROFILED.

Protected PASSIVE

Specifies whether the request went through the Barracuda Web Application Firewall rules and policy checks.

Values: PASSIVE, PROTECTED, UNPROTECTED.

WF Matched VALID

Specifies whether the request is valid or not.

Values: INVALID, VALID.

URL /index.html The URL of the request without the query part.
Query String name-srawat The query part of the request.
Referrer

http://99.99.109.2/index.cgi
OR

http://2001::1:109/index.cgi
The value contained in the Referrer HTTP request header. It identifies the web resource from which the client was “referred” to the requested URL.
Cookie

namdksih=askdj

The cookie as found in the HTTP request headers.
User Agent Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux i686; rv:12.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/12.0 The value contained in the User-Agent request header. Normally, this information is submitted by the clients which details the browser, operating system, software vendor or software revision, in an identification string.
Proxy IP

99.99.1.117
OR

2001::117

If the client requests are coming through a proxy or gateway, then this field provides the IP address of the proxy.

A client side proxy or gateway changes the source IP of the request to its own and embeds the actual client’s IP in an HTTP header such as X-Forwarded-For or X-Client-IP.

The Barracuda Web Application Firewall, if configured, will ignore the proxy IP and extract the actual client IP from the appropriate header to apply security policies as well as for logging the Client IP field above.

This field preserves the proxy IP address for cases where it is required, e.g. forensics and analytics.

Note: The actual client IP header configuration is done using the Header Name For Actual Client IP under the Edit actions for a service on the BASIC > Services page.

Proxy Port 34065 The port of the proxy server whose IP address has been logged in the Proxy IP field above.
Authenticated User John The username of the currently authenticated client requesting the web page.
Custom Header 1 gzip,deflate The header name for which you want to see the value in the Access Logs.
Custom Header 2 99.99.1.128
OR
2001::128
The header name for which you want to see the value in the Access Logs.
Custom Header 3 keep-alive The header name for which you want to see the value in the Access Logs.

Audit Logs

The audit logs record the activity of the users logged in to the GUI of the Barracuda Web Application Firewall for the purpose of administration. These logs are visible on the BASIC > Audit Logs page and are also stored on the Barracuda Web Application Firewall in its native database. Additionally, when the administrator chooses an external remote syslog server through the configuration available at ADVANCED > Export Logs, these logs are streamed to the remote syslog servers with the priority as INFO.

The default log format for Audit Logs:

%t %un %lt %an %ct %li %lp %trt %tri %cn %cht %ot %on %var %ov %nv %add

Unit Name, Log Type, and Log ID are not displayed on the BASIC > Audit Logs page.

IPv4 Example:

2014-02-24 09:05:17.764 -0800  wafbox1 AUDIT Adam GUI 10.11.18.121 24784 CONFIG 166 config SET virtual_ip_config_address 99.99.130.45 virtual_ip_config_interface "" "WAN" []

IPv6 Example:

2014-02-24 10:05:17.764 -0800  wafbox1 AUDIT Adam GUI 2001::117 23390 CONFIG 196 config SET virtual_ip_config_address 2001::2:109 virtual_ip_config_interface "" "WAN" []

Detailed Description

The table below describes each element of an audit log with respect to the above example:

Field Name Example Description
Time 2014-02-24 09:05:17.764 -0800 The time recorded in the following format: yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.s (one or more digits representing a decimal fraction of a second)TZD(time zone designator which is either Z or +hh:mm or -hh:mm)
Unit Name wafbox1 The name of the unit specified in the Default Hostname field on the BASIC > IP Configuration page.
Log Type AUDIT

Specifies the type of log: Web Firewall Log, Access Log, Audit Log, Network Firewall Log or System Log.

Values: WF, TR, AUDIT, NF, SYS

Admin Name Adam The name of the logged in user.
Client Type GUI This indicates that GUI is used as client to access the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
Login IP

10.11.18.121
OR

2001::117
The IP address from which the activity happened.
Login Port 24784 The port from which the activity happened.
Transaction Type CONFIG

Denotes the type of transaction done by the system administrator.

Values: LOGIN, LOGOUT, CONFIG, COMMAND, ROLLBACK, RESTORE, REBOOT, SHUTDOWN, FIRMWARE UPDATE, ENERGIZE UPDATE, SUPPORT TUNNEL OPEN, SUPPORT TUNNEL CLOSED, FIRMWARE APPLY, FIRMWARE REVERT, TRANSPARENT MODE, UNSUCCESSFUL LOGIN, ADMIN ACCESS VIOLATION.

Transaction ID 166

Specifies the transaction ID for the transaction that makes the persistent change.

Note: Events that do not change anything do not have a transaction ID. This is indicated by transaction ID of -1.
Command Name config The name of the command that was executed on the Barracuda Web Application Firewall.
Change Type SET

Denotes the type of change made to the configuration.

Values: NONE, ADD, DELETE, SET.
Object Type virtual_ip_config_address The type of the object which is being modified.
Object Name

99.99.130.45
OR
2001::2:109

The name of the object type that is being modified.
Variable virtual_ip_config_interface The internal name of the parameter which is under modification.
Old Value - The value before modification.
New Value WAN The value after modification.
Additional Data [] Provides more information on the parameter changed.

Network Firewall Logs

The network traffic passing through the interfaces (WAN, LAN and MGMT) that matches the configured Network ACL rule are logged under Network Firewall Logs. The log entries provide information about every packet that the Barracuda Web Application Firewall has allowed or denied based on the Action specified in the ACL rule. Using this information, you can identify where the network traffic originated and where it was destined for, and the action applied. These log entries can be viewed on the ADVANCED > Network Firewall Logs page.

The default log format for Network Firewall Logs:

%t %un %lt %sl %p %si %sp %di %dp %act %an %dsc

IPv4 Example:

2014-05-20 00: 56:42.195 -0700  WAF1 NF INFO TCP 99.99.1.117 52676 99.99.79.2 80 ALLOW testacl MGMT/LAN/WAN interface traffic:allow

IPv6 Example:

2014-05-20 02: 51:36.455 -0700  WAF1 NF INFO TCP 2001:4528::231 46739 2001:4528:2::79 80 ALLOW testacl MGMT/LAN/WAN interface traffic:allow

Detailed Description

The table below describes each element of a network firewall log with respect to the above example:

Field Name Example Description
Time 2014-04-10 09:37:58.749 -0700 The date and time at which the event occurred. Date format is Year-Month-Day, and time format is Hours: Minutes:Seconds:Milliseconds.
Unit Name WAF1  The name of the unit specified in the Default Hostname field on the BASIC > IP Configuration page.
Log Type NF

Specifies whether it is of type Web Firewall Log, Access Log, Audit Log, Network Firewall Log or System Log.

 

Values: WF, TR, AUDIT, NF, SYS
Severity INFO

Defines the seriousness of the attack.

Values:

  • EMERGENCY – System is unusable (highest priority).
  • ALERT – Response must be taken immediately.
  • CRITICAL – Critical conditions.
  • ERROR – Error conditions.
  • WARNING – Warning conditions.
  • NOTICE – Normal but significant condition.
  • INFORMATION – Informational message (on ACL configuration changes).
  • DEBUG – Debug-level message (lowest priority).
Protocol

TCP

The layer 3 protocol type of the corresponding packet.
Source IP

99.99.1.117
OR

2001:4528::231
The IP address of the source that originated the network traffic.
Source Port

52676
OR
46739

The port number of source that originated the network traffic.
Destination IP

99.99.79.2
OR

2001:4528:2::79
The IP address of the destination network or host.
Destination Port 80 The port number of the network or host to which the packet was destined.
ACL Policy ALLOW The ACL policy (Allow or Deny) applied to this ACL rule.
ACL Name testacl The name of the corresponding ACL rule.
Details

traffic:allow MGMT/LAN/WAN interface

The incoming network interface traffic passes through.

Table of Log Formats

The following table describes names and values for each log:

System Logs Web Firewall Logs Access Logs Audit Logs Network Firewall Logs
%ei - Event ID %ai - Service IP %ai - Service IP %add - Additional Data %acl - ACL ID
%ll - Log Level %ap - Service Port %ap - Service Port %an - Admin Name %act - Action ID
%lt - Log Type %at - Action %au - Authenticated User %cht - Change Type %dsc - Details
%un - Unit Name %ad - Attack Type %br - Bytes Received %ct - Client Type %di - Destination IP
%ms - Message %adl - Attack Details %bs - Bytes Sent %cn - Command Name %dp - Destination Port
%md - Module Name %ag - Attack Group %ch - Cache Hit %seq - Log ID %lt - Log Type
%t - Time %aid - Attack ID %cu - Certificate User %li - Login IP %p - Protocol
%tarc - Epoch/Unix Time Stamp %au - Authenticated User %ci - Client IP %lp - Login Port %srci - Source IP
%uid - Unique ID %ci - Client IP %cp - Client Port %lt - Login Type %srcp - Source Port
%ta - American Standard Format Timestamp %cp - Client Port %c - Cookie %nv - New Value %sl - Severity
  %fa - Follow-up Action %ct - Client Type %on - Object Name %seq - Log ID
  %seq - Log ID %cs1 - Custom Header 1 %ot - Object Type %t - Time
  %lt - Log Type %cs2 - Custom Header 2 %ov - Old Value %tarc - Epoch/Unix Time Stamp
  %m - Method %cs3 - Custom Header 3 %t - Time %un - Unit Name
  %p - Protocol %h - Host %tri - Transaction ID %uid - Unique ID
  %px - Proxy IP %s - HTTP Status %trt - Transaction Type %ta - American Standard Format Timestamp
  %pp - Proxy Port %id - Login ID %un - Unit Name  
  %r - Referer %seq - Log ID %var - Variable  
  %ri - Rule ID %lt - Log Type %tarc - Epoch/Unix Time Stamp  
  %rt - Rule Type %m - Method %uid - Unique ID  
  %sid - Session ID %p - Protocol %ar - Admin Role  
  %sl - Severity %pf - Protected %ta - American Standard Format Timestamp  
  %t - Time %px - Proxy IP    
  %u - URL %pmf - Profile Matched    
  %ua - User Agent %pp - Proxy Port    
  %un - Unit Name %q - Query String    
  %tarc - Epoch/Unix Time Stamp %r - Referer    
  %uid - Unique ID %rtf - Response Type    
  %ta - American Standard Format Timestamp %sid - Session ID    
    %si - Server IP    
    %sp - Server Port    
    %st - Server Time    
    %t - Time    
    %tt - Time Taken    
    %u - URL    
    %ua - User Agent    
    %un - Unit Name    
    %uid - Unique ID    
    %v - Version    
    %wmf - WF Matched    
    %tarc - Epoch/Unix Time Stamp    
    %ta - American Standard Format Timestamp    
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