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Barracuda Web Application Firewall

Configuring User Defined Patterns

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The Barracuda Web Application Firewall allows you to create customized data patterns which can be detected and handled according to configured security settings.

The Barracuda Web Application Firewall uses regular expressions (regex) to define data type patterns. Custom data types can be defined using regex patterns to implement advanced data type enforcement on input parameters. For guidelines on how to write regular expressions, see Extended Match Syntax Help. The pattern-match engine recognizes the lexical patterns in text and compares inputs to defined data type patterns. For example, the following is the default regex pattern for a Visa credit card:

4[[:digit:]]{12}|4[[:digit:]]{15}

A pattern can also be associated with an algorithm, for example, an algorithm to validate a credit card number can be associated with a credit card pattern. The algorithm runs on all strings matching the regular expression to decide whether they actually conform to this pattern.

Internal Patterns

The ADVANCED > View Internal Patterns page includes Identity Theft Patterns, Attack Types, Input Types, and Parameter Class. Each data type exhibits a unique pattern. These patterns can be bound to a policy or to profiles of an web application to validate the incoming requests.

The patterns displayed by default under each pattern group cannot be modified. To create a modified pattern, use the Copy function to copy a pattern, then modify it as required. The copied pattern group can be found on the ADVANCED > Libraries page under the corresponding group. You can modify or delete patterns as required, and then apply them to a service security policy. For more information on how to copy a pattern group, refer to Steps to Copy a Pattern Group.

The following provides a brief description about the internal patterns.

Identity Theft Patterns

Identity theft is the loss of personal data resulting in fraud. Disclosure of sensitive information such as credit card numbers, banking information, passwords, or usernames in service communication might enable identity theft. The Barracuda Web Application Firewall prevents unauthorized exposure of at risk data.

The Identity Theft container includes Credit Cards, Social Security Numbers, and Directory Indexing data types. In addition, customized identity theft patterns can be created and used. For more information, see Enabling Data Theft Protection.

Attack Types
Input Types

Input data types are used to validate the HTTP request parameters. Inputs come from web forms, applications and Services, custom client applications, or file based records. This validation ensures that the data conforms to the correct syntax, is within length boundaries, and contains only permitted characters or numbers. Requests failing validation are assumed intrusions and are blocked. Input types are defined using reg-ex patterns. Default Input Types including credit cards, numeric, hex-number, alpha, alphanumeric, string, name, and date are provided. In addition, customized Input Types can be defined and used.

Parameter Class

Parameter class defines acceptable values for parameters. Parameter classes are bound to Parameter Profiles using WEBSITES > Web Site Profiles > Parameter Profiles and specify validation criteria for parameters in a request. In addition to the internal parameter classes, customized parameter classes can be created and used. 

Steps to Copy a Pattern Group

Do the following to copy a pattern group:

  1. From the ADVANCED > View Internal Patterns page identify the group you want to copy.
  2. Click Copy next to that group. The Copy window appears.
  3. In the New Group field, specify a new name for the group and click Paste.
  4. Navigate to the ADVANCED > Libraries page. The new pattern group appears under the group to which it belongs.
  5. Click Edit Pattern to edit a particular pattern.
  6. Click Delete to delete a particular pattern.

Creating and Using Custom Attack Types

The ADVANCED > Libraries > Attack Types section allows creation of custom attack data types which, when detected in a request, identify the request as an attack. One or more patterns which define the format of the attack type can be added to each group.

Creating a Custom Attack Type Pattern
  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Libraries > Attack Types section.
  2. Enter a name in the New Group text box and click Add. The new attack type group created appears in the Attack Types section.
  3. Click Add Pattern next to that group. The Attack Types window appears. Specify values for the following fields:
    1. Pattern Name - Enter a name for the pattern.
    2. Status - Set to On if you wish to use this pattern for pattern matching in the responses.
    3. Pattern Regex - Define the regular expression of the pattern or click the Edit icon to select and insert the pattern.
    4. Pattern Algorithm - Select the algorithm to be associated with the pattern from the list.
    5. Case Sensitive - Select Yes if you wish the pattern defined to be treated as case sensitive.
    6. Pattern Description - Optional. Enter a description for the defined pattern. Example, Visa credit card pattern would indicate the pattern matches a visa credit card.
  4. Click Add.
Using a Custom Attack Type

The added attack type pattern becomes available under Custom Blocked Attack Types on the following pages and sections:

  • ADVANCED > Libraries > Custom Parameter Class
  • WEBSITES > Web Site Profiles > URL Profiles
  • SECURITY POLICIES > URL Protection
  • SECURITY POLICIES > Parameter Protection

The Custom Blocked Attack Types are enabled by default under the ADVANCED > Libraries > Custom Parameter Class section and the WEBSITES > Web Site Profiles > URL Profiles section. Whereas in the SECURITY POLICIES > URL Protection and SECURITY POLICIES > Parameter Protection pages you have to manually select the custom attack types.

Creating and Using Custom Input Types

The Barracuda Web Application Firewall includes a collection of predefined and custom input data types, which can be used to validate HTTP Request parameters. Input data types are used to validate that request parameters conform to expected formats. Most attacks can be prevented by properly validating input parameter values against expected input data types. Input Type validation enforces the expected formats rather than trying to identify malicious values. Requests failing validation are identified as intrusions and blocked. Default Input Types including alpha-numeric strings, credit card, date and positive-long-integer are provided. Custom Input Data Types can also be added.

The ADVANCED > Libraries > Input Types section allows you to create customized input data types. One or more patterns which define the format of the input type can be added to each group.

Creating a Custom Input Type Pattern
  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Libraries > Input Types section.
  2. Enter a name in the New Group text box and click Add. The new input type group created appears in the Input Types section.
  3. Click Add Pattern next to that group. The Input Types window appears. Specify values for the fields and click Add to save the pattern.
Using a Custom Input Type

Perform the following steps to use a custom input data type:

  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Libraries > Custom Parameter Class section.
  2. Click Add Custom Parameter Class. The Add Custom Parameter Class window appears.
  3. In the Name text box, enter a name for the custom parameter class.
  4. Select CUSTOM from the Input Type Validation drop-down list.
  5. Select the custom input type you created from the Custom Input Type Validation drop-down list.
  6. In the Denied Metacharacters text box, enter the metacharacters or click the Edit icon to select and apply the metacharacters to be denied in this parameter value.
  7. Select the required check box(es) of Blocked Attack Types and Custom Blocked Attack Types and click Add.
  8. Bind this custom parameter class to a parameter profile.

Creating and Using Custom Parameter Class

The ADVANCED > Libraries > Custom Parameter Class section allows creation of custom parameter classes which enforce expected input formats and block attack formats for request parameters. One or more patterns which define the format of the data type can be added to each group. Bind the custom parameter class to a parameter profile by adding a new parameter profile or editing an existing parameter profile using WEBSITES > Web Site Profiles.

Creating a Custom Parameter Class
  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Libraries > Custom Parameter Class section.
  2. Click Add Custom Parameter Class. The Add Custom Parameter Class window appears. Specify values for the following fields:
    1. Name - Enter a name for the custom parameter class.
    2. Input Type Validation - Select the expected type of value for the configured parameter on the WEBSITES > Web Site Profiles. Most of the attacks could be prevented by properly validating input parameter values against the expected input. Input Type validation enforces the expected value type as opposed to looking for malicious values. Values of configured parameters are validated against the specified Input Type and requests with failed validations are detected as intrusions and blocked.
    3. Custom Input Type Validation - Select the expected custom input data type for the configured parameter. 
    4. Denied Metacharacters - Enter the metacharacters to be denied in the parameter value, or click the Edit icon to select and apply the metacharacters.
    5. Blocked Attack Types - Select the check box(es) to detect malicious patterns in the configured parameter. An intrusion is detected when the value of the configured parameter matches one of the specified Attack Types and the request is blocked.
    6. Custom Blocked Attack Types - Select the custom attack type check box(es) to be used to detect the intrusions.
  3. Click Add to add the above configuration.
Using a Custom Parameter Class

Perform the following steps to use a custom parameter class:

  1. Go to the WEBSITES > Web Site Profiles page
  2. In the Service section, click the Web Site drop-down list and select the Service for which you wish to add the parameter profile.
  3. In the URL Profiles section, select the check box next to the URL profile to which you want to add the Parameter profile.
  4. In the Parameter Profiles section, click Add Param. The Create Parameter Profile window appears.
  5. In the Parameter Profile Name text box, specify a name for the parameter profile. Ensure the Status is set to On.
  6. Select CUSTOM from the Parameter Class drop-down list.
  7. Select the custom parameter class you created from the Custom Parameter Class drop-down list and click Add.
  8. Now, the parameter profile is used to validate the requests coming for the Service you selected depending on the Mode you configured in the URL profile. For more information on URL and Parameter Profiles. See Configuring Website Profiles.

Creating and Using Custom Response Page

The ADVANCED > Libraries > Response Pages section allows creation of customized HTML response pages for HTTP requests that violate security policies on the Barracuda Web Application Firewall. Either Edit an existing default response page or use Add Response Page to add customized response pages that can be shared among multiple Services.

Creating a Custom Response Page
  1. Go to the ADVANCED > Libraries > Response Page section.
  2. Click Add Response Page. The Add Response Page window appears. Specify values for the following fields:
    1. Response Page Name - Enter a name for the response page.
    2. Status Code- Enter the HTTP status for the response page. Examples:
      1. 403 Forbidden
      2. 405 Method Not Allowed
      3. 406 Not Acceptable
    3. Headers- Enter the response headers for the response page. Examples:
      1. Allow - What request methods (GET, POST, etc.) does the server support?
      2. Content-type - Content type of the resource (such as text/html).
      3. Connection - Options that are specified for a particular connection and must not be communicated by proxies over further connections.
      4. Location - Where should client go to get document?
      5. Refresh - How soon should browser ask for an updated page (in seconds)?
    4. Body- Enter the response body for the response page. The following macros are supported:
      1. %action-id - This will be replaced by the attack ID of the violation which resulted in the response page to be displayed.
      2. %host - This will be replaced by the host header which sent the request.
      3. %s - This will be replaced by the URL of the request which caused the violation.
      4. %client-ip - This will be replaced by the Client IP of the request which caused the violation.
      5. %attack-time - This will be replaced by the time at which the violation occurred.
      6. %attack-name - This will be replaced by the attack name of the violation which resulted in the response page to be displayed.
  3. Click Add to add the new custom page.

Example of a custom response: The request from %client-ip at %attack-time for the URL %s cannot be served due to attack %action-id on the host %host.

An image can also be embedded in the response page. Here are the steps to do so:

  1. Convert the image to base64 using openssl or any other utility. Example: openssl base64 -in barracuda.jpg -out barracuda-jpg.b64
  2. Embed the base64 encoded image into html with the "img" tag. Example: <html><img src="data:image/jpeg;base64,[BASE64 ENCODED IMAGE] alt="Test"/></html>
Using a Custom Response Page

The added response page is listed under the following pages and sections:

  • SECURITY POLICIES > Global ACLs > Existing Global ACLs
  • SECURITY POLICIES > Action Policy > Action Policy
  • WEBSITES > Allow/Deny > URL : Allow/Deny Rules

Perform the following steps to use a custom response page:

Steps to Use a Custom Response Page in the URL : Allow/Deny Rules
  1. Go to the WEBSITES > Allow/Deny > URL : Allow/Deny Rules section.
  2. Click Add next to the Service for which you want to configure the response page. The Create ACL window appears.
  3. In the URL ACL Name text box, enter a name for the URL ACL.
  4. Select Response Page from the Deny Response drop-down list.
  5. Select the response page you created from the Response Page drop-down list.
  6. If required change values of other parameter(s) and click Add.
Steps to Use a Custom Response Page in the Action Policy
  1. Go to the SECURITY POLICIES > Action Policy > Action Policy section.
  2. Click Edit next to the action policy for which you want to add the response page. The Edit Attack Action window appears.
  3. Select the response page you created from the Response Page drop-down list, and click Save.
Steps to Use a Custom Response Page in the Existing Global ACLs
  1. Go to the SECURITY POLICIES > Global ACLs > Existing Global ACLs section.
  2. Click Edit next to the URL ACL for which you want to add the response page. The Edit Global ACL window appears.
  3. Select the response page you created from the Response Page drop-down list, and click Save.

 

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